Treblinka, 21 November 1945. Judge Z. Łukaszkiewicz interviewed the person specified below as a witness, without swearing him in. Having been advised of the criminal liability for making false declarations, the witness testified as follows:
|Forename and surname||Stanisław Borowy|
|Names of parents||Władysław|
|Place of residence||Treblinka|
|Occupation||train dispatcher with Polish State Railways|
Since 1939, I have been working at the Treblinka railway station.
At the end of July 1942, if I am not mistaken, a telegram was sent from the railway head office in Warsaw informing us that resettlement trains would soon be in operation, which were to run back and forth between various stations and Treblinka. Indeed, transports of Jews started to arrive soon, which lasted continuously until approximately New Year’s Day 1943.
There were one, two, three or even four transports a day (the last occurrence was rather rare).
Anyway, I think that if one were to estimate the average number of transports at that time, one transport per day would be considerably too few.
As for the number of people who were delivered to the extermination camp in Treblinka daily at that time, I think it was between 12,000 and 18,000 people. Each transport consisted of 60 wagons; there were between 150 and 200 people in each. As trains approached the Treblinka railway station, many victims were trying to escape from the wagons, and the Ukrainians and Lithuanians, who manned the transport trains, killed a lot of them. There were often so many corpses at the Treblinka railway station that they were loaded into carts and transported to the camp.
After having arrived at the station, each transport was divided into three parts, since there was room for only 20 wagons on the loading ramp of the camp. Each part of the transport was moved onto the ramp with a shunting steam engine. I drove this engine a few times as a pointsman. At first, the engine was left behind the gate; later, to accelerate the unloading of the wagons and the moving away of empty wagons, the engine was left with the wagons at the ramp. Nobody was allowed to enter the area of the camp, so even the Germans who were manning the transports did not have easy access.
The camp was separated from the ramp with a high fence made of barbed wire, so thickly intertwined with branches that there was no good view of the camp premises from the ramp. Nevertheless, I managed to observe certain facts.
I know that after the unloading of people from the wagons, the men were separated from the women and children. After some time, one could hear screams, which lasted about 20 minutes, and then died out. Between 40 and 50 minutes passed between leaving the Treblinka railway station and returning to it with empty wagons.
I remember that one day when the liquidation of a transport was taking more time than usual, for some reasons or other, when another transport arrived, one could see from the height of the engine a dozen or so naked people being driven into a large wooden building. I suppose that there were gas chambers in that building. One could also see Bagier diggers, inside the camp, digging pits.
The burning of the corpses did not start from the very beginning, but a long time after the camp had become operational. The burning lasted for quite a long time. The transports of Jews arrived mainly from Poland, but we know that there were transports from Germany, Czechoslovakia and even from Belgium. If I am not mistaken, the last transports came from around Białystok after the Uprising, during which some camp buildings had been burnt down.
Moreover, I want to add that near the ramp a fake railway station was built, with notices indicating direction of travel, as well as some other railway station facilities.
It is very difficult now to determine the number of transports because the memories of these facts have faded, and besides, the Germans did what they could to prevent anybody from observing the number of transports.
I remember that in the autumn of 1942 the Gestapo arrested a technician who worked on the construction of a bridge in Małkinia, on whom notes with details concerning the transports had been found. The man was executed; I do not remember his name.
The witness interview report was read out to the witness and he confirmed it by signing it on each page.