Warsaw, 5 March 1946. Judge Stanisław Rybiński, delegated to the Commission for theInvestigation of German Crimes, interviewed the person specified below as a witness. Having advised the witness of the criminal liability for making false declarations, and of the significance of the oath, the judge swore her in, after which the witness testified as follows:

Forename and surname Janina Makowska
Date of birth 26 November 1906
Names of parents Stefan Antoni and Maria, née Pomorska
Occupation office worker in the Municipal Board of Warsaw
Education secondary
Place of residence Praga, Ząbkowska Street 41, flat no. 17
Religious affiliation Roman-Catholic
Criminal record none

I have been working in the Municipal Board since 1926. In 1943, just like now, I was an office worker in the Residents’ Register Department. At that time, our department was located in the City Hall building. Since I usually worked in Theatre Square, I was able to observe the public execution of Poles carried out by the Germans.

During the winter, at the beginning of 1943 and at the end of 1944, the Germans carried out public mass executions. One of them took place in Theatre Square. However, I do not remember the date and the month.

That day, when I arrived at my office, I learnt that there would be an execution in Theatre Square. Indeed, at about 9 a.m., a siren sounded – a shrill whistle, used by the Germans to announce the beginning of an execution. After that sound signal had finished, I ran out into the square. There were onlookers gathering at the edge of the square. The middle part of the square was occupied by German vehicles, which had brought soldiers and the people who were to be executed. The Germans were taking the victims out of the trucks. They hit those who would not come out with rifle butts to force them to hurry up.

There were a lot of people in Theatre Square who were to be executed. As I learnt later, there were about 200 people. Germans put them against the wall of The Grand Theatre and divided them into groups there. I was really moved and I could not observe precisely how the victims were put against the wall – in one large group or in separate groups. I could only see that despite cold weather, they were walking barefoot and were wearing clothes made of paper of light colour. The victims were moving in silence. Therefore, I came to the conclusion that they were gagged. After they had been put against the wall, there were two or three very loud salvos.

After the execution had been completed, Germans started loading the corpses of the victims into the vehicles, throwing them as if they were logsof wood. Later, I learnt that on that day Germans also executed one of our municipal office workers, Jeremi Niewęgłowski, who was a very decentperson.

I do not know when or in what circumstances he was arrested. I do not know the names of the other people who were killed in the execution.

I did not notice whether the victims were blindfolded.

In addition, I also know that in another public execution the date of which I do not remember, the Germans killed the Tucholski brothers, whom I knew very well, Albin (24 years old) and Henryk (about 19 years old). They were both caught accidentally during a round-up, and three days later I saw their names on a notice announcing the execution. Their sister-in-law Eugenia Tucholska lives in Rojewo and works in the municipalityadministration. Rojewo is located in the Inowrocławcounty.

Moreover, Bronisława Orzełowska (over 50 years old) and her daughter Lucyna were also executed. This was in Grodzisk; I think it was in 1942. They were allegedly accused by the Germans of keeping firearms at home. Detailed information about them can be given by Anna Chwalibogowska (residing in Warsaw, at Nowogrodzka Street 22, flat no. 10).

When the Warsaw Uprising broke out I was in my office; later, during the Uprising until the surrender of the City Hall, I worked in anti-aircraft defence and as a nurse. At the end of August, I retreated together with the others to the Old Town, and when the Old Town fell, I was taken prisoner by the Germans. I was transported, together with the others, to Pruszków, and from there to Auschwitz.

There were about 500,000 people gathered there. The Germans sought to starve us to death there in a bestial way. Weakened by starvation, we were forced to work in the fields. During the winter we were forced to take naked baths; we were kept in a hut that had unglazed windows. As a result, a lot of people fell ill and died of pneumonia. Due to a large influx into Auschwitz of people from Warsaw our organization which was there was not able to support us adequately.

I was in Auschwitz until the arrival of the Soviet soldiers. Many of us died there. Those who were strong enough returned, but many were disabled, as I was.

The witness interview report was read out.